Blog: India-China Border Disputes 2020 and China’s Foreign Policy (Hot Topic)

India-China Border Conflict

We all know about the ongoing border-dispute between Republic of India and the People’s Republic of China. These two Asian countries have had many border-disputes and skirmishes with each other. The ongoing border dispute between India and China is over Galvan River Valley and some other territories.

Previous conflicts:

Both of them even fought a war which is known as the Indo-China War or the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The war was decisively won by China. India was quiet unprepared for that war. China surprise-attacked India without a warning.

Indian Soldiers during the Indo-China War. Picture Courtesy:

In this war, India lost almost 2000 miles of land area which was occupied by China. After this war, India realized that its northern and north-eastern parts which shared borders with China needed much more protection.

From then on, India spent large part of its defense expenditure in protecting its northern and north-eastern parts.

Experts believed that, even though China got the small disputed territory in its control in the 1962 war, it lost its international image.

China got the Indian territory it wanted in 1962. But, this did not put an end to China’s desire to occupy more landmass of India and other neighboring states.

Other disputes between India and China are the 1967 Indo-China border Skirmishes, 1987 Indo-China skirmish, 2017 India-China military stand-off  and the current India-China Border conflicts of 2020.

Ongoing India-China Border-skirmishes of 2020:  

The current dispute is the India-China border-dispute of 2020.

This skirmish has been going on since 5th may. Both India and China have mobilized large numbers of troops and equipment along the LAC (Line of Actual Control).

Both the countries have been holding bi-lateral talks ever since. Even though both countries are holding talks, there have been violent clashes between the People’s Liberation Army Ground Forces and the Indian Army.


Amid the Corona virus pandemic, China has once again raised border disputes with India by objecting a road being built by India in the Galvan River Valley. Experts believe that this region is being controlled by India for a long time by now.

China claims that Galvan River Valley belongs to them along with some other territories such as Pangong Tso and Hotsprings Checkpoint.

There were clashes between the Indian Army and the People’s Liberation Army until last month. The clash that occurred on 15-16th June in Galvan River Valley caused both sides to suffer highest casualties.

Media sources say that India lost 20 soldiers along with an Officer and China lost 43 soldiers including an officer. After the clashes on 15-16th June, both sides have calmed down a little. Bi-lateral talks between commanders of both the armies took place and both the countries’ forces have withdrew their forces back by 1-2 kilometers. Although, China claims Arunachal Pradesh (shown in the map), Arunachal Pradesh is completely under Indian control and China is not demanding that territory in the ongoing dispute.

Siachen Glacier is also Indian controlled territory. Aksai-Chin is controlled by China. It was occupied by China in the 1962 Indo-China War. 

China’s Foreign Policy:

China is already being condemned by world superpowers and neighboring countries for its foreign policies. Currently, China has border-disputes not only with India, but with Japan over some inhabited islands named the Senkakus. China is also threatening Hong-Kong over its autonomy. The communist nation also has ongoing dispute in the South-China Sea where it has illegally claimed the economic zones of Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines and Taiwan along with international territory in the South-China Sea as its territory. This has made the US send its aircraft carriers, and warships accompanied by Thailand, Malaysian and Taiwanese warships to stand against China.

South-China Sea Disputed Region. Picture Courtesy:

Not only this, but China also claims that Taiwan was historically its territory. This is strongly opposed by US and its allies. Russian Federation is avoiding any participation in the dispute between India and China since both India and China are its historic allies.

US Aircraft Carrier in the South-China Sea

India-China War Scenario:

India and China both have strong militaries. Even though China is slightly ahead in manpower and equipment than India, China has huge geographical disadvantages. Some experts fear that these tensions between the world’s largest democracy and world’s  largest communist country can lead to a war.

Experts are saying that if at all a War breaks out between India and China, India will get strong international support.But there are very less chances of a war because of the crumbling economies during the Covid-19 Pandemic.

If a war breaks out between these two nations, India would definitely have an upper hand because of the following reasons:

  • India have many airbases as compared to China near the Himalayas. This would give India a tactical advantage. Chinese military would take at least 1 month to deploy more of its fighter planes. But, it would be too late.
  • India also have a tactical advantage in terms of troops and ground weapons such as tanks and artillery that are near Indo-China border. This is because China has almost no army bases in the outer Tibetan Region. It would again take the communist nation at least a month time to mobilize its artillery and tank units in the region.
  • It would be equally tough for both countrys’ air forces to maintain air superiority. That is because both countries have equally strong air forces. Even though China has more number of fighters, most of them are outdated models.
  • The turning point in the war can be the entry of US with the consent of India which is likely because China has dispute also with the US. 
  • The entry of US into the war would be advantageous in the war to India. When China would mobilize large amount of troops along the Indian Border, its east coast would be completely prone to attack by the US. This would Force China to split its army and fight the two armies advancing through two different directions.
  • If India does not get any major victories in the front, another way in which it can kick China out of the war is by affecting China’s economy.
  • China’s economy mainly depends on its trade through the Indian Ocean which is completely under the control of India. Indian Navy can create a naval blockade which would affect China’s economy drastically.

It is possible that Japan may also accompany India during the war. So, taking in the current global situation, China and India’s international relations, China and India’s geography and allies, India has an upper hand over China.

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